A hormonal issue known as Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects women during their reproductive years. You might not have regular periods if you have PCOS. Or perhaps you experience lengthy menstrual cycles. A hormone called androgen may be present in your body in excess.
Around the ovary’s outer edge, several tiny sacs of fluid form in people with PCOS. Cysts are what they are. In the tiny cysts filled with fluid are developing eggs. These are known as follicles. The follicles stop releasing eggs on a regular basis.
There is no recognized cause for PCOS. Losing weight and receiving early diagnosis and treatment may help to reduce the risk of developing long-term consequences like type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
In many cases, PCOS symptoms start to show up during the first menstrual cycle. Occasionally symptoms develop later after having periods for a while.
Several PCOS symptoms exist. When you exhibit at least two of them, you are given a PCOS diagnosis.
Irregular periods. PCOS is frequently characterized by irregular or infrequent menstrual cycles. The same goes for experiencing periods that are longer than usual for a period, or those last several days. You might, for instance, experience less than nine periods a year. Moreover, those intervals may be greater than 35 days. You can experience difficulties conceiving.
A surplus of androgen. Excessive body and facial hair may come from high androgen levels. Hirsutism is the term for this. Male-pattern baldness and severe acne can also occur occasionally.
Polycystic Ovaries: Perhaps your ovaries are larger. On the ovary’s border, many follicles carrying immature eggs may form. It’s possible that the ovaries don’t function properly.
Often, obese individuals experience more severe PCOS signs and symptoms.
Whenever to visit a doctor
If you’re worried about your periods, having difficulties becoming pregnant, or showing signs of excess androgen, consult your doctor. Symptoms could include male-pattern baldness, acne, and new hair growth on your face and body.
It is unknown what causes PCOS specifically. Things like the following could be involved:
Resistance to insulin. A hormone produced by the pancreas is insulin. It permits the utilization of sugar, the body’s main source of energy, by cells. Blood sugar levels may increase if cells develop immunity to insulin’s effects. Your body may produce more insulin as a result in an effort to lower the blood sugar level.
Your body may produce too much androgen if you have too much insulin. Ovulation, the process through which eggs are released from the ovary, may be difficult for you.
Dark, velvety patches of skin in the armpits, groin, or under the breasts are one indication of insulin resistance. Other symptoms could include a greater appetite and weight gain.
Inflammation at a low level. In reaction to an infection or injury, white blood cells produce various chemicals. The reaction is referred to as low-grade inflammation. According to research, patients with PCOS experience a specific kind of chronic, low-grade inflammation that causes their polycystic ovaries to manufacture androgens. Heart and blood vessel difficulties may result from this.
Heredity: According to research, several genes may be connected to PCOS. A family history of PCOS may increase your risk of having the disease.
Excessive androgen: The ovaries may create a lot of androgen if you have PCOS. Ovulation is hampered by an excess of androgen. This indicates that the follicles in which the eggs develop are not regularly used to release the eggs. Acne and hirsutism are further side effects of too much androgen.
PCOS complications can include:
gestational diabetes or high blood pressure brought on during pregnancy
pregnancy loss or an early birth
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Severe liver inflammation brought on by liver fat accumulation
High blood pressure, excessive blood sugar, and bad cholesterol or triglyceride levels are all parts of the metabolic syndrome, which greatly raises your risk of cardiovascular disease.
Diabetes type 2 or prediabetes
Anxiety, depression, and eating disorders
A uterine lining cancer (endometrial cancer)
Obesity is frequently associated with PCOS and can make the disorder’s symptoms worse.